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Book ’40 Ford traces pre-War history

First published 8 April 2011 in the Calgary Herald Driving section. Cover image courtesy Motorbooks.

We often get caught in the rush of the modern world, and the pace of developments and technology can make it easy to forget the past.

Switching off the computer and turning to the printed page offers a brief respite.

And for those interested in the history of the automobile, and in particular a certain era of Ford, a notable new book by author Joseph P. Calabas, ’40 Ford: Evolution, Design, Racing, Hot Rodding is recommended reading.

Cabadas is well suited to the task of writing about pre-War Ford developments.

Born in Detroit, Cabadas has spent some 15 years as an automotive reporter. He has written two award-winning auto books, including River Rouge: Ford’s Industrial Colossus and The American Auto Factory.

His latest title is published by Motorbooks (ISBN: 9780760337615, $35 CAN). The book ’40 Ford offers a comprehensive look at the auto manufacturing giant, and specifically how Ford evolved beyond the heady days of the Model T.

Cabadas notes that the Model T, one of the best-selling cars of all time with more than 15 million units trundling off of Ford’s assembly line by May 26, 1927, was not much more than a horseless carriage with a four cylinder engine. Ford updated the vehicle, and in 1928 introduced the Model A, another four-cylinder car.

By the late 1920s Ford’s rivals Chevrolet and Plymouth offered more powerful six-cylinder cars, but Henry Ford refused to build a six.

Instead, Ford wanted to design an economical eight-cylinder powerplant. Engines of this size were nothing new – but they were almost exclusively the domain of more expensive, luxury automobiles.

Henry Ford wanted a V-8 engine with a cast iron block, and he planned to sell it in a car that would cost less than $600. Other vehicles equipped with a V-8 engine, such as a Cadillac or a LaSalle, sold for more than $1,000.

Cabadas writes: “The V-8s owed their existence to Henry Ford’s decision to replace the Model A in 1932. With falling car sales and declining revenues exacerbated by the onset of the Great Depression, Ford faced a slide into insignificance if it brought out the wrong product at the wrong time.”

The product? Ford’s flathead V-8.  Cabadas goes behind the scenes as he details how this famous engine was designed, and a series of black and white photographs helps illustrate the subject matter. There are 163 black and white images in ’40 Ford, and many show foundry and machining processes used by Ford in the early 1930s. Dozens of these photos were sourced from The Henry Ford museum in Dearborn, Mich., and alone are worth the price of the book.

First offered in 1932 in the Model B, “With its 16 valves located inside the V-8 block, the engine had a flat cylinder head bolted on with 21 studs, hence the nickname ‘flathead’. Ford’s V-8 had a compression ratio of 5.5:1 with 65 horsepower at 3,400 rpm and a 221-cubic-inch displacement, offering as much or more power than competitors,” Cabadas notes. For 1933, horsepower increased to 75 at 3,800 rpm.

By the mid-1930s aerodynamic shapes such as those found on new airplanes, trains and Zeppelins were beginning to inform automobile design, and Ford’s Lincoln division came up with the Zephyr – a super streamlined vehicle. Although originally envisioned by John Tjaarda, it was Ford’s Bob Gregorie who dreamed up the distinctive wedge-shaped front end, essentially altering new vehicle design from 1936 forward.

And it was Gregorie who borrowed cues from the Lincoln Zephyr and applied them to the less-expensive Fords – the result being the ‘radically streamlined’ 1937 cars, featuring, as Cabadas notes: “…all-steel ‘teardrop’ bodies, including an all-steel top, an alligator hood, and a sharp-nosed and rakish front with a radiator grille that curved deeply into the hoods’ sides. The headlights were molded into the crowned fenders, an exceptional design feature because most cars had torpedo-shaped lights mounted on the radiator shell or the fenders.”

These features ultimately culminated in the 1940 Ford, a vehicle considered by many to be the pinnacle of pre-War automobile design – powered, of course, by the flathead V-8.

In ’40 Ford Cabadas also delves deeply into the influence of organized labour movements on the auto industry, and how Ford resisted their efforts.

The final chapter of the book recognizes the labours of individuals devoted to finding out just how fast the Fords of the late 1930s could go in organized racing competitions or hopped up and on the streets.

Cabadas’ book ’40 Ford is a welcome diversion from the computer screen, and it serves as a poignant reminder of past developments in the North American automobile industry.

Calgary Herald, Smart: Small Car, Big Deal book review, by Greg Williams


Smart: Small Car, Big Deal makes for smart reading.

Whether you have an interest in the Smart car or not this book proves fascinating as it details the many different facets of how a new automobile –especially in this day and age – enters into production.

Smart retells the history of the little car, from conception through design to final product. It also highlights the company’s environmental responsibility as the cars are produced at the green ‘Smartville’ factory in Hambach, France.

The book was originally published in Germany in 2007 as Smartism. With the arrival of the Smart car in the U.S., publisher Motorbooks renamed and printed the work (ISBN-13: 978-0-7603-3521-5, softcover, 180 pages, 300 colour photos, $32.95,

Smart is part art book with its many colour photos of the cars, the people who drive them, and images of the Smartville factory. Also included are several colourful examples of Smart’s advertising and design sketches.

However, the words written by authors Willi Diez and Jurgen Zollter are as illustrative as the photographs. The stories these two writers tell help peel away the many layers of the Smart story.

Divided into three sections – History & Technology, Analysis & Prognosis and The New One: 451 – Smart takes readers back to 1972. We’re told how Mercedes-Benz created a concept for a small car that the company thought would meet driver demands in the year 2000. While the designs might now look a little naïve, as originally sketched the concept car had dimensions similar to today’s Smart car. To prove the mini-car’s viability test mules of the 2.5-metre long two-seater were constructed.

The project was held back due to safety concerns. It wasn’t clear how such a small car could be constructed and live up to the safety requirements for which Mercedes-Benz as a brand was famous. But the company didn’t give up. In 1981, Mercedes-Benz developed a concept vehicle dubbed NAFA, the “Nahverkehrsfahrzeug”, or Local Traffic Vehicle. A prototype was made, but again, the project was put on the back burner. While the NAFA took into consideration safety with rigid side impact protection and ‘controlled deformation body components’ there just wasn’t a ready and willing market for a micro car.

Then in the late 1980s the California Clean Air Act was announced. The act stipulated that by 2002 at least 10 per cent of every major automaker’s cars sold in the state would have to be Zero Emissions Vehicles.

This spurred Mercedes-Benz to work on the MCC, or Micro Compact Car, and the company set up a design studio in Irvine, Calif. The design team worked in the community as well as in the studio, studying urban mobility issues as they attempted to sketch a pleasing design for the two-seater. Prototypes – the Eco Sprinter and Eco Speedster — were built in 1993.

Enter Nicolas G. Hayek, the man responsible for the Swatch watch. He wanted to revolutionize the auto industry with a car fit for an urban market, and Hayek figured he could apply his Swatch watch making concepts to car manufacturing.

In 1994 Micro Compact Car AG was established as a joint venture between Daimler-Benz AG (51 per cent share) and the Swiss Corporation for Microelectronics and Watch Making Industries Ltd. (49 per cent share). The car needed a name, and it was derived from Swatch Mercedes Art – or Smart.

Propulsion was an issue, and electric, hybrid, gas and diesel power were all considered. In the end, gas/diesel variants won out, and the Smart car was shown at numerous venues in 1995 and 1996. In 1997, Daimler-Benz bought out Hayek’s shares of MCC, and the Smart car was shown at the Frankfurt International Automobile Show.

The Smart measured in at 2.5 m long, 1.51 m wide and 1.52 m tall. A three-cylinder gas engine sat in the back of the car, and safety was assured through the Tridion safety cell together with front and rear crush zones and modern restraint systems. The body consisted, and still consists, of dyed thermoplastic panels, including a front and rear clip and doors.

The first Smart cars were sold in Europe in October 1998. In 1999 a direct-injection diesel engine found its way into the vehicle – and this was the engine powering the Smart when it debuted in Canada in 2004.

Smart – the book – takes a look at the turbulent times felt by parent company DaimlerChrysler in the mid-2000s, and how Smart the brand almost became a footnote in automotive history. With some restructuring and paring of jobs Smart weathered the storm, and the cars – now in their second generation with the new model 451 coupes and cabriolets — continue to be some of the most economic and climate-friendly vehicles in mass production.

Check – at the time of this writing Smart: Small Car, Big Deal was listed as available and priced at $20.78.